International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research
ISSN (Print): 2250-1029
ISSN (Online): 2249-6084
Publish with eIJPPR Submission
2020   Volume 10   Issue 2

 

Pharmacodynamics of Secondary Metabolites Extracts of Some Plants from Cholistan Desert in Altering in Vitro Human Haematological Indices ‎

Ghulam Yasin*, Iqra Anwer, Iqra Majeed, Mubashrah Sabir, Sundas Mumtaz,             Amna Mehmood

Department of Botany, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.


ABSTRACT
Background: The vegetation of deserts comprise of plants synthesizing secondary metabolites, which have phytopharmacological potential and provide a mechanism of secondary defense against stresses, pathogens, and herbivores. Secondary metabolites, when used by animals and human beings as food or medicine, also defend the individual against diseases. The trafficking of defense strategy of secondary metabolites can be judged by the health status of an individual when treated with plant resourced metabolites as food or medicine. Blood characteristics of humans determine the physiology and health status of the individual. So any change brought in blood by exposure to secondary metabolites can determine the importance of their transfer from plants to humans. Design: The extracts were mixed with human blood in a 1:4 ratio and were analyzed by using the Automated Hematology Analyzer machine for complete blood count tests (CBC). Data were statistically analyzed by using one way ANOVA (Analysis Of Variance). The level of statistical significance was set at (P < 0.05). Means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range tests.  Results: The results showed that leaves, stem, and flower ethanolic extracts significantly increased leukocyte, granulocyte, granulocyte count, HCT, and MCV while significantly decreased eosinophils, platelets, and RBC. On some of the parameters, different parts of the plant showed different effects on the same hematological parameter as leaves and stem significantly reduced the lymphocyte but flower caused an insignificant reduction. Leaves and stem resulted in a significant increase of monocyte and monocyte count but flower significantly and insignificantly reduced the monocyte and monocyte count, respectively. Leaves and flowers of the plant insignificantly decreased the HGB while stem caused a significant increase. A significant increase of the MCH was observed in the case of leaves and stem while flowers showed an insignificant increase. Leaves and flowers significantly decreased the MCHC and stem insignificantly decreased the MCHC. 
Key Words: Pharmacodynamics, secondary metabolite, Cholistan, desert, human, hematological.


INTRODUCTION

Primary metabolites are widely distributed naturally in all living organisms. In plants, such compounds are often present in high concentrations in seeds and vegetative storage organs and are needed for physiological development because of their role in basic cell metabolism [1]. Primary metabolites are for example; sugars, proteins, lipids, and starch, which play vital roles in the growth of plants.

Secondary metabolites are organic compounds; occur in plants in high structural diversity [2]. These compounds are synthesized in plants tissue or organ in a specific way by specific biosynthetic enzymes [3-5], transported through xylem and phloem and are accumulated and stored in high concentrations in the plant organs that are important for survival and reproduction. Secondary metabolites play different functions such as protection against high radiation, extreme temperatures, pathogens, and drought conditions. Drought and nutrients scarcity are the main problems faced by the vegetation of the desert area [6]. In deserts, the survival of plants is subjected to the adaptation of particular characters. This limits the species of a plant adapted to the desert environment [7-11]. The Cholistan, in Pakistan, is the world’s seventh-largest desert. The climate of the desert is hot and the soil is sandy in texture with negligible amounts of organic matter [12]. Mean summer temperature varies from 35 to 50ºC and winter from 15 to 20ºC, annual rainfall is less than 100 mm to 250 mm [13]. Due to which, the vegetation of the Cholistan desert comprises xerophytic species, which are adapted to these various environmental stresses, like extreme aridity, salinity, high temperature, and low nutrient availability [14]. The topography of soil and its chemical composition determines the vegetation type and plant distribution in that area [15, 16].

Antioxidative nature of secondary metabolites enables them to be used as medicines and food for curing since a long time ago [17, 18]. Even today, plants and their products are fundamental units of health care [19]. Plant extract-based medicine is culturally well accepted by rural and even urban peoples of the world. Medicinal potential, antioxidant nature, and toxicity of the plant resourced secondary metabolites can be assessed for the shift of their defensive role from plant to human. Assessment of human blood parameters reveals the health status of an individual. This is because blood plays a vital role in the nutritional, physiological, and pathological status of the organism [20]. Among these, physiological parameters could be a valuable means of diagnosing a disease [21]. Hence, the investigation of various hematological parameters might be a useful index that can be employed to assess the transfer of secondary immunity from plants to human beings as defensive strategies against stress or disease. Toxic effects of herbal extract in animals are used to deduce potential health risks for humans indirectly [22]. However, direct evaluation of the toxic effects of herbal extracts on human hematological parameters can have more predictive value for human health. The present experiment was designed to explore the trafficking of secondary metabolites from plants to humans as secondary defensive strategies against stressful agents.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The choice of investigations

The choice of our experiment aimed to explore the relationship between biochemical defense strategies of plants and humans as consumers. Ethanol soluble secondary metabolites [23] sourced from desert vegetation, for in vitro changes in human blood characteristics, can reveal a correlation of biochemical defense of producers and consumers. The assessment of the effects of secondary metabolites on humans discriminating the defensive and toxicological validation of plants' secondary metabolites [24] will provide profound bases to find the trafficking of defense from producer to consumers. The choice of in vitro utilization of human blood is based on the fact that the assessment of blood parameters reveals the health status of an individual. This is because blood plays a vital role in the physiological, nutritional, and pathological status of the organism [20]. Among these, physiological parameters are dependent on blood characteristics, which could be a valuable means of diagnosing a disease [21]. Hence, the investigation of various hematological parameters might be a useful index that can be employed to assess the toxic or defensive potentials of plant extracts containing secondary metabolites [25]. Toxic effects of plants' extract are commonly used in animals to deduce potential health risks for humans indirectly [22]. However, in vitro evaluation of toxicity effects on human hematological parameters directly, can have more predictive value for human health. Moreover, the selection of desert plants is based on the criteria, due to arid environmental conditions, these synthesize secondary metabolites for adaptation to a stressful environment [14].

Experimental design

Plants of the Cholistan desert were selected for secondary metabolites extraction. Ethanol was used as a solvent for extraction procedures [26, 27]. Human blood from a healthy volunteer was utilized for in vitro assessment of hematological indices [28, 29]. The mean of three replicates for each sample was used to reduce the error for comparison with normal blood characteristics.

Climate and geology of the experimental site

The climate of the Cholistan desert of Pakistan is hot and the soil is sandy in texture and contains negligible amounts of organic matters [12]. Based on the topography, parent material, soil, and vegetation, the Cholistan desert is divided into two geomorphic regions; northern lesser Cholistan and southern greater Cholistan. The vegetation of the Cholistan desert comprises species adapted to these various stresses, like extreme aridity, high salinity, high temperature, and low nutrient availability [14].

Plant sample collections

After a preliminary survey of the Cholistan desert, the intact specimen was collected and herborized from the study area. Identification of the herborized material was performed by specialists, by matching them with the labeled herbarium exsiccates lying in the departmental herbarium (Dr.Mumtaz Bukhari herbarium) of Botany Department Bahauddine Zakarya University, Multan Pakistan and/or the literature [30]. Comprehensive field survey and plant specimen collection, after a preliminary visit, was from Cholistan desert being easily approachable, rich floristically, and with a sizable population of desert herbs. Data and specimens were collected according to an appropriate methodology [31, 32] keeping uniformity among the age of plants, size of plants, and size of dunes. Further processing of collected specimens was carried out in the laboratory of the department. The specimens were first washed with water and later with 2% ethanol to remove dust and other surface contaminants, dried at room temperature and were pulverized to a fine powder by using pestle and mortar.

Crude herbal extract preparation

Following the procedure adopted by Afolayan et al., (2010), the crude ethanolic extract was prepared from finely grounded 1.0 g in 10ml of ethanol by shaking at room temperature for 3h [33]. The ethanol used was of the highest purity. The extract was filtered and the residue was re-processed for extraction. The solvent was evaporated by rotatory evaporator at 400 C and the material was stored at -4oC.

Blood sampling and in vitro analysis

After ensuring the confidentiality and anonymity of a blood donor and approval from the local ethical committee, human blood was obtained from a healthy volunteer of 25 years of age having O+ blood group. The volunteer was selected after a questionnaire of not taking any medications or addictive substances (including tobacco, alcohol, and aspirin or any other antiplatelet drugs) and keeping a balanced diet (meat and vegetables) using no antioxidant supplementation. By adding ethanol, the plant extract was diluted up to 5ml. After consulting literature, the ratio of mixing blood to plant extract was determined by a trial method to find an appropriate dose when no coagulation occurred. Finally, the plant extract was added into 4ml blood (1,4) and was shaken smoothly. The blood sample without the addition of extract was considered as a control for comparison. Complete blood count tests (CBC) by using the Automated Hematology Analyzer machine was performed for hematological indices.

Statistical analysis

Data obtained for blood tests were analyzed by using one way ANOVA (Analysis Of Variance) at a 5% level of statistical significance. Means were compared by Duncan’s multiple range test [34].

3. RESULTS

Salsola imbricata stem:

Different sensitivity range was found in the response of blood parameters treated with the ethanolic extract. The application of extract seems more promising in enhancing the eosinophils count (95.28%), HGB (21.24%), HCT (8.05%), MCV (21.36%), MCH (34.28%), MCHC (13.39), RDW count (59.56%), platelets (18.22%). But the extract failed to maintain the trend in granulocyte count, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, RBC, and MPV parameters. The maximum decrease regarding role of extract was for granulocytes count (17692%), leukocytes (90.05%), lymphocyte (24.55%), monocytes (738.26%), granulocyte (250%), lymphocyte count (146.26%), monocytes count (1230.76%), eosinophils count (95%), RBC (12.06%), and MPV (22.65%).

Salsola imbricata root:

The stimulating behavior of the ethanolic extract varied considerably. The expression of mean values solidify the enhancing role of ethanolic extract for eosinophils (89.13%), HGB (15.95%), platelets (29.75%), MCV (18.96%), MCH (48.79%), MCHC (24.48%) and RDW (17.17%). blood parameters, leukocytes (123.80%), granulocyte count (12615.38%), lymphocyte (9.45%), monocytes (1355.61%), granulocyte (253%), lymphocyte count (146.26%), monocyte count (2669.23), eosinophils count (97.28%), RBC (15.95%), HCT (4.71%), and MPV (3.89%) revealed a significant decrease when treated with the extract.

Salsola imbricata fruit:

The stimulating behavior of the ethanolic extract varied considerably. The significant decrease was in leukocyte (63.41%), granulocyte (20615.38%), lymphocyte (14.12%), Monocyte count (639%), granulocyte (250%), lymphocyte count (90.29%), monocyte count (1023.07%), eosinophils count (98%), RBC (12.06%), MCHC (3.66%) and MPV (19.19%). The observations are excluded from the ongoing trends for eosinophils, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, RDW, and platelet parameters. Here, it can be significantly discriminated that the extract has played pivotal role in increasing eosinophils (89.13%), HGB (22.44%), HCT (24.76%), MCV (43.67%), MCH (40.11%), RDW (94.16), and platelets (15.57%).

Leptadenia pyrotechnica root:

An expression of percentage differences supported the manipulation of blood parameters by ethanolic extract application. The greatest promising role of extract, if the term may be used, in this fashion, was for lymphocyte (31.14%), eosinophils count (100%), RBC (24.51%), HGB (36.37%), HCT (56.70%), MCV (18.74%), and RDW count (21.80%). The extract did not reveal any statistically clear cut increase in MCH (3.53%) and monocyte count (100%). The increasing augmentation could not have a pace for some parameters. The extract showed a decrease in leukocyte (80.46%), granulocyte count (51438.4%), granulocyte (673%), lymphocyte count (25.73%), eosinophils count (93%), MCHC (8.66%), platelets (19.51%), and MPV (10.53%).

Leptadenia pyrotechnica stem:

The ethanolic extract is a potent factor in determining the change in blood parameters. The most marked increase was in monocyte (84.69%), eosinophils count (89.13%), eosinophils (100%), HGB (2.04%), HCT (34%), MCV (57.17%), MCH (27.95%), RDW (66.64%), and platelets (29.49%). The application of the extract seems to significantly decrease leukocytes (39.60%), lymphocyte count (88.87%), granulocyte (673%), lymphocyte (154.85%), monocyte (207.69%), RBC (15.75%), and MPV (32.75%). Although not statistically justified, a considerable decrease in MCHC (20.01%) was observed when the extract was applied.

 Prosopis cineraria Stem:

The ethanolic extract is a potent factor in determining the change in blood parameters. The most marked increase was observed in leukocyte (98.93%), granulocyte count (21900%), monocyte count (1047.95%), lymphocyte (108.95%), monocyte (1976.23%), eosinophils (100%), HGB (20.48%), HCT (7.62%), MCV (20.99%), MCH (40.99%), MCHC (13.38%), and RDW (70.80%). Ethanolic extract role deviated from these expectations of promotion in MPV, platelets, granulocyte, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and RBC parameters. The application of extract seems to significantly decrease MPV (30.43%), platelets (9.65%), granulocyte (360%), eosinophils (89.28%), lymphocyte (2.92%) and RBC (12.81%).

Tamarix aphylla bark:

The stimulating behavior of ethanolic extract varied considerably. Here, it can be significantly discriminated that the extract has played a pivatol role in increasing leukocytes (50.97%), granulocyte count (28864%), monocytes count (190%), lymphocyte (71.64%), monocyte (284.61%), eosinophils (100.87%), HGB (14.81%), HCT (18.94%), MCV (37.32%), MCH (38.88%), RDW (86.94%), and platelets (79.12%). The observations are excluded from the ongoing trends for MPV, MCHC, granulocyte, eosinophils, and RBC parameters.

Tamarix aphylla stem:

Ethanolic extract proved its marked influence when applied. Expression of mean values solidify the enhancing role of the ethanolic extract for leukocytes (118.47%), granulocyte count (1284.61%), monocyte count (2586.75%), lymphocyte (105.22%), monocyte (5100%), eosinophils (105.96%), HGB (1.56%), HCT (18.94%), MCV (47.84%), MCH (35.52%), RDW (92.77%) and platelets (9.81%). An exception in this correlation was found MPV, RBC, lymphocyte, eosinophils count, and granulocyte parameters. Blood parameters, MPV (20.63%), MCHC (19.78%), RBC (15.53%), lymphocyte count (0.39%), eosinophils count (89.28%), and granulocyte (20%) revealed a significant decrease when treated with extract.

Capparis decidua stem:

Ethanolic extract substantially altered blood parameters. Exposure to extract has stronger impact of leukocytes (81.70%), granulocyte (2769.23%), lymphocyte count (14.67%), monocyte count (971.42%), lymphocyte (107.46%), Monocyte (1715.38%), Eosinophils (105.96%), HGB (14.76%), HCT (5.58%), MCV (38.45%), MCH (23.97%), RDW (51.42%) and platelets (7.47%) respectively. Ethanolic extract affected MPV, RBC, eosinophils count, and granulocyte with different degrees thereby lowering values from control. Blood parameters MPV (20.63%), RBC (18.87%), eosinophils count (98.92%), and granulocyte (346%) revealed a significant decrease when treated with the extract. Although not statistically justified, but a considerable decrease was observed in MCHC (20.49%) when the extract was applied.

DISCUSSION

The results revealed a diversified action of ethanolic extracts sourced from different plant parts on various hematological attributes. The results are in harmony with the earlier findings of Swenson and Reece, 1993; Olson et al, 1984; Ganong, 1997; and Straus, 1998, while in contradict to the findings of Lohar et al, (2009) and Gruchy, (1976) regarding RBC and Hb concentration (MCH, MCHC) [21, 35-39]. According to the opinion of some researchers, some herbal plants are often non-specific in their actions [40]. Many plants have been known to produce biologically active substances, some of which are related to special flavor or taste and others are found to be useful as antioxidants. Among the dietary phenolic compounds, antioxidants and secondary metabolites of plants are the most abundant natural antioxidants [41]. Antioxidants act as cell saviors in a number of ways; as reducing agents, free radical scavengers, singlet oxygen quenchers, or hydrogen donors [42]. Antioxidants are synthesized in plants under environmental stresses to neutralize the activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Damage to cells and biomolecules caused by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) is decreased by antioxidants [41]. The plant extracts usually have a high concentration of antioxidants like flavonoids and phenolic compounds. As potent antioxidants, flavonoids are especially important for protection against human diseases. [43]. The concentration ratio of antioxidants to ROS determines not only the potential of plants to withstand adverse environmental conditions but when present in plant extract or its products, these might play important roles against the hemolytic activity of ROS by stabilizing blood cells and molecules or by their direct action on ROS.

Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) are considered to be the most abundant cells in the human body, possessing desirable physiological and morphological characteristics. Erythrocytes are affected more than other blood cells by medicines [44].

Results revealed that the ethanolic extracts of leaf, stem, and flower sourced from various plants reduced the RBC (Table 1). Erythrocytes are considered as a major target of free radicals (ROS) owing to the presence of high concentrations of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids [45]. Oxidative damage to the erythrocyte membrane may be due to the hemolytic activity of ROS. The hemolysis of red blood cells by ROS destructs cell membranes with the release of hemoglobin from these cells. These factors cause deterioration of cell membranes, which may be the key episode of the lysis of cells [46].

Results revealed that the extracts of leaf, stem, and flower of some plants decreased MCHC and increased MCH and MCV (Table 1). MCHC and MCH are indices of hemoglobin concentration in blood and in each cell, respectively [47] and mean cell volume (MCV) refers to the volume of each red cell [48]. RBC and Hb are associated with the total numbers of red blood cells while MCV, MCH, and MCHC relate to individual red blood cells [22]. An increased level of MCV accompanied by a reduction in MCHC depicts the reduction in osmotic fragility of the cell membrane [49]. MCV determines the size of RBCs. RBCs of normal size are termed normocytic [15]. When the MCV is high, RBCs will be larger than normal and are termed as macrocytic. When the MCV is below normal, the RBCs will be smaller than normal and are called as microcytic. These categories of size are used to classify anemias. A significant reduction in MCV, if observed, accounts for interference in iron uptake by hemoglobin. Furthermore, it is reported that a decrease in the blood cells may be due to the increased glycosylation (nonenzymatic) of membrane proteins, which can cause hyperglycemia. Oxidation of glycosylated membrane proteins and hyperglycemia causes an increase in the production of lipid peroxides which, may cause hemolysis of cells.

An observed change in hemoglobin concentration might be due to iron deficiency as iron is an essential component of hemoglobin. Iron deficiency could be due to the direct interference of molecules with iron or interference in its metabolism [19]. ROS has been reported to cause mobilization of Fe2+ by Ca2+ via Fenton reaction thereby creating iron deficiency [50]. Hemoglobin deficiency results in cells smaller than the normal size. This occurs in many diseases including iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia, and anemias associated with chronic infection or disease.

An increase in hemoglobin (MCH and MCHC) facilitates oxygen transport to the tissues [39]. Increase in hemoglobin concentration may be due to the presence of active principles that stimulate hemopoiesis, or support in the availability of iron for hemopoiesis, or agents for chelating iron may be weakly present or completely absent in the plant extract, which induces a change in hemolysis of RBC [38]. Change in blood platelets might be by their adhesion to collagen and aggregation with ROS species in resting blood platelets or thrombin activated platelets [51]. Variation in the reduction of blood platelet might also be by the antiplatelet activity of antioxidants [52]. Therefore, the compounds that have antioxidative activity might inhibit platelet function. Platelet reduction may be beneficial at some level because platelets reduce the blood viscosity lowering its pressure and may be beneficial in terms of clinical hematology. An increase or decrease in blood attributes might be owed to the anticoagulation activity of the plant extract [28]; free radical scavenging activity of extract [27]; antiglycosylation [53]; by genotoxicity [54] or by thrombolytic potential [29].

CONCLUSION:

Plants revealed dynamics in their phytochemical potential for secondary metabolites. Intense care and extensive work are needed for exploring their ethnomedicinal importance.

REFERENCES

 

  1. Vijayvergia R, Kumar J. Quantification of primary metabolites of Nerium indicum Mill. Asian J. exp. sci. 2007;21(1):123-8.
  2. alla Sharafi G, Changizi M, Rafiee M, Gomarian M, Khagani S. Investigating the Effect of Drought Stress and Vermicompost Biofertilizer on Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Thymus vulgaris L. Archives of Pharmacy Practice. 2019;1:137.
  3. Facchini PJ, De Luca V. Opium poppy and Madagascar periwinkle: model nonmodel systems to investigate alkaloid biosynthesis in plants. The Plant Journal. 2008 May;54(4):763-84.
  4. Murata J, Roepke J, Gordon H, De Luca V. The leaf epidermome of Catharanthus roseus reveals its biochemical specialization. The Plant Cell. 2008 Mar 1;20(3):524-42.
  5. Andallu B, Shankaran M, Ullagaddi R, Iyer S. In vitro free radical scavenging and in vivo antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2014 Mar 1;4(1):10-7.
  6. Mehraban A, Tobe A, Gholipouri A, Amiri E, Ghafari A, Rostaii M. valuation of Drought Tolerance Indices and Yield Stability of Wheat Cultivars to Drought Stress in Different Growth Stage. World Journal of Environmental Biosciences. 2018;7(1):8-14.
  7. Danin A, Orshan G. The distribution of Raunkiaer life forms in Israel in relation to the environment. Journal of vegetation science. 1990 Feb;1(1):41-8.
  8. Floret C, Galan MJ, LeFloc'h E, Orshan G, Romane F. Growth forms and phenomorphology traits along an environmental gradient: tools for studying vegetation?. Journal of Vegetation Science. 1990 Feb;1(1):71-80.
  9. McAuliffe JR. A rapid survey method for the estimation of density and cover in desert plant communities. Journal of Vegetation Science. 1990 Oct;1(5):653-6.
  10. Wondzell SM, Cornelius JM, Cunningham GL. Vegetation patterns, microtopography, and soils on a Chihuahuan desert playa. Journal of Vegetation Science. 1990 Jun;1(3):403-10.
  11. Cornelius JM, Kemp PR, Ludwig JA, Cunningham GL. The distribution of vascular plant species and guilds in space and time along a desert gradient. Journal of Vegetation Science. 1991 Feb;2(1):59-72.
  12. Arshad M, Hassan AU, Ashraf MY, Noureen S, Moazzam M. Edaphic factors and distribution of vegetation in the Cholistan desert, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 2008 Oct 1;40(5):1923-31.
  13. Arshad M, Ashraf MY, Ahmad M, Zaman F. Morpho-genetic variability potential of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from Cholistan desert, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2007 Oct 1;39(5):1481-8.
  14. Naz N, Hameed M, Sajid Aqeel Ahmad M, Ashraf M, Arshad M. Is soil salinity one of the major determinants of community structure under arid environments?. Community Ecology. 2010 Jun 1;11(1):84-90.
  15. Chaudhry SA. The Cholistan desert. A token consultancy report. Cholistan Institute of Desert Studies, Islamia University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. pp: 34. Unpublished. 1992.
  16. Glinushkin AP, Akimov TA, Beloshapkina OO, Molnár J, Sycheva II, Temirbekova SK, Kvitko AV, Dorozhkina LA, Startsev VI Pestsov GV, Spiridonov YY, Batalova GA, Zakharenko VA. Fungicidal Activity of Seed Disinfectants Against Root Rot of Wheat in Various Types of Soils. Entomol. appl. sci. lett. 2018;5(2):101-7.
  17. Ishola IO, Oreagba IA, Adeneye AA, Adirije C, Oshikoya KA, Ogunleye OO. Ethnopharmacological survey of herbal treatment of malaria in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2014 Dec 1;4(4):224-34.
  18. Woerdenbag HJ, Kayser O. Jamu: Indonesian traditional herbal medicine towards rational phytopharmacological use. Journal of herbal medicine. 2014 Jun 1;4(2):51-73.
  19. Nyamukuru A, Tabuti JR, Lamorde M, Kato B, Sekagya Y, Aduma PR. Medicinal plants and traditional treatment practices used in the management of HIV/AIDS clients in Mpigi District, Uganda. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2017 Mar 1;7:51-8.
  20. Kakade ML, Simons NR, Liener IE, Lambert JW. Biochemical and nutritional assessment of different varieties of soybeans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1972 Jan;20(1):87-90.
  21. Ganong WF. Review of medical physiology. Mcgraw-hill; 1995 Apr..
  22. Ashafa AO, Olunu OO. Toxicological evaluation of ethanolic root extract of Morinda lucida (L.) Benth.(Rubiaceae) in male Wistar rats. Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals. 2011 Apr 1;2(2).
  23. Hemwimon S, Pavasant P, Shotipruk A. Microwave-assisted extraction of antioxidative anthraquinones from roots of Morinda citrifolia. Separation and Purification Technology. 2007 Mar 15;54(1):44-50.
  24. Haq I. Safety of medicinal plants. Pak J Med Res. 2004;43(4):203-10.
  25. Sunmonu TO, Oloyede OB. Performance and haematological indices in rats exposed to monocrotophos contamination. Human & experimental toxicology. 2010 Oct;29(10):845-50.
  26. Kinuthia GK, Kabiru EW, Anjili CO, Kigondu EM, Ngure VN, Ingonga JM, Gikonyo NK. Efficacy of crude methanolic extracts of Allium sativum L. and Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. against Leishmania major. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2014;4(1):16-25.
  27. Saha MR, Hasan SM, Akter R, Hossain MM, Alam MS, Alam MA, Mazumder ME. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of methanol extract of the leaves of Mimusops elengi Linn. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2008;6(2):197-202.
  28. Ughachukwu PO, Ezenyeaku CC, Onwurah WO, Ifediata FE, Ogamba JO, Afonne OJ. Effect on some haematological indices of human whole blood when aqueous leaf extract of Euphorbia heterophylla was used as storage anticoagulant. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013;12(31).
  29. Sayeed MA, Rashid MM, Kabir MF, Alam R, Islam MS, Dhar R, Yusuf AT. In vitro anti-arthritic and thrombolytic activities of methanolic extract of Protium serratum leaves. J Med Plants Res. 2014;8(16):615-8.
  30. Ali SI, Qaiser   M.   Flora   of   Pakistan. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Pakistan. Nos. 1993–2011, 194–218.
  31. Jain SK. Ethnobotany: Its scope and study. Indian Museum Bull. 1967;2(1):39-43.
  32. Khan SS. Ethnomedicinal studies on plants of Bhopal district of MP Ph. D (Doctoral dissertation, Thesis, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, India), 1993.
  33. Afolayan AJ, Aboyade OM, Adedapo AA, Sofidiya MO. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the methanol extract of Malva parviflora Linn (Malvaceae) in rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;9(8): 1225-1229.
  34. Duncan DB. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 1955 Mar 1;11(1):1-42.
  35. Swenson MJ, Reece WO. Dukes' Physiology of Domestic Animals, 1 lth Edition. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 1993.
  36. Olson CT, Keller WC, Gerken DF, Reed SM. Suspected tremetol poisoning in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1984 Nov;185(9):1001-3.
  37. Straus JH. Anaemia. In: Merck Veterinary Manual: A handbook of diagnosis, and therapy for Veterinarians. 8th ed. Merck and Co. Inc. Whitehouse Station, N. J. U.S.A. 1998, pp8-18.
  38. Lohar PS, Lohar MS, Roychoudhury S. Erythropoietic effects of some medicinal plants of india on experimental rat model. Slovak Journal of Animal Science. 2009 Mar 31;42(2):95-8.
  39. Gruchy, G.C. de. The red cell. Anaemia. In Clinical Haematology in Medical Practice (D. Penington, B. Rush and P. Castaldi, eds),. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific. pp. 43, 343.
  40. Treasure, J. Medical Herb (online), 2000. http://www.herbological.com.
  41. Fiorentino A, D'Abrosca B, Pacifico S, Mastellone C, Piscopo V, Monaco P. Spectroscopic identification and antioxidant activity of glucosylated carotenoid metabolites from Cydonia vulgaris fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food chemistry. 2006 Dec 13;54(25):9592-7.
  42. Fattouch S, Caboni P, Coroneo V, Tuberoso CI, Angioni A, Dessi S, Marzouki N, Cabras P. Antimicrobial activity of Tunisian quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) pulp and peel polyphenolic extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007 Feb 7;55(3):963-9.
  43. Tiwari AK. Imbalance in antioxidant defence and human diseases: Multiple approach of natural antioxidants therapy. Current science. 2001 Nov 10:1179-87.
  44. Hamidi M, Tajerzadeh H. Carrier erythrocytes: an overview. Drug delivery. 2003 Jan 1;10(1):9-20.
  45. Ebrahimzadeh MA, Ehsanifar S, Eslami B. Sambucus ebulus elburensis fruits: A good source for antioxidants. Pharmacognosy magazine. 2009 Jul 1;5(19):213.
  46. Devjani C, Verma RJ. Ameliorative effect of Emblica officinalis aqueous extract against ochratoxin–induced lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver of mice. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 2010;23:1-1.
  47. Wickramasingh SN. Functions of red cells. In: Systemic Pathology 3rd edition, Churchill, Livingstone, 1991: pp 6.  
  48. Green JH.   An Introduction to Human Physiology. African edition, Oxford University Press, Ibadan. 1978.
  49. Olaleye SB, Iranloye BO, Salami HA, Elegbe RA. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and other blood parameters in rats fed with diets containing raw and processed soyabeans (Glycine max). Biosci Res. Comm. 1999;11(2):107-12.
  50. Kuiper-Goodman T, Scott PM. Risk assessment of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Biomedical and environmental sciences: BES. 1989 Sep;2(3):179-248.
  51. Olas B, Wachowicz B, Tomczak A, Erler J, Stochmal A, Oleszek W. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro. Platelets. 2008 Jan 1;19(1):70-7.
  52. Dutta-Roy AK. Dietary components and human platelet activity. Platelets. 2002 Jan 1;13(2):67-75.
  53. Nair SS, Kavrekar V, Mishra A. Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic activity of selected plant extracts. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention. 2013;2(4):12-9.
  54. Pereira TS, de Sant'Anna JR, Silva EL, Pinheiro AL, de Castro-Prado MA. In vitro genotoxicity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil in human lymphocytes. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2014 Feb 3;151(2):852-7.

 

 

 

 

Table 1.  In vitro effect of the Ethanolic extract of shrubs of drawer fort on human hamatology [values represent mean±standard deviation; n=3]

Name of species

Total leukocyte

(10×3/u L)

Granulocyte

(%)

Lymphocyte

(%)

Monocyte

(%)

Eosinophils

(%)

Granulocyte

(10×3/L)

Normal blood

5.63 ± 0.05

K

0.13 ± 0.05

o

47.93 ± 0.05

İ

1.96 ± 0.05

m

2.76 ± 0.05

a

0 ± 0

d

Salsola imbricata(r)

LSD= 2.08

12.6 ± 0.5

d

(-123.80)

16.53 ± 0.92

k

(-12615.38)

52.46±1.30

bcde

(-9.45)

28.53 ± 1.06

c

(-1355.61)

0.3 ± 0.1 l

bc

(+89.13)

2.53 ± 1.02

c

(-253)

Salsola imbricata (s)

LSD= 2.97

10.7 ± 0.55

ef

(-90.05)

23.13 ± 1.106

i

(-17692)

59.7 ± 1.11

b

(-24.55)

16.43 ± 0.90

h

(-738.26)

0.13 ± 0.05

de

(+95.28)

2.5 ± 0.1

c

(--250)

Salsola imbricata ( f)

LSD=5.105

9.2 ± 0.7

gh

(-63.41)

26.93 ± 0.60

h

(-20615.38)

54.7 ± 1.11

bcd

(-14.12)

14.5 ± 0.75

i

(-639)

0.3 ± 0.1

bc

(+89.13)

2.5 ± 0.1

c

(-250)

Leptadenia pyrotechnica (r) LSD= 2.49

10.16 ± 0.50

efg

(-80.46)

67 ± 1.5

a

(-51438.4)

33 ± 1

h

(+31.14)

0 ± 0

m

(+100)

0 ± 0

e

(+100)

6.73 ± 0.50

ab

(-673)

Leptadenia pyrotechnica (s) LSD=3.26

7.86 ± 0.35

ij

(-39.60)

0 ± 0

o

(+100)

90.53 ± 1.06

a

(-88.87)

5.46 ± 0.40

k

(+84.69)

0.3 ± 0.1

bc

(+89.13)

6.73 ± 0.50

ab

(-673)

Values sharing the different letters represent a significant difference in a respective row; values in parenthesis represent percentage difference over control group; LSD= least standard deviation; r=root; s=stem; f=flower

 

Table  1: (Cont…) In vitro effect of Ethanolic extract of shrubs of drawer fort on human heamatology [values represent mean±standard deviation; n=3]

Name of species

Lymphocyte count

(10×3/L)

Monocyte count

(10×3/L)

Eosinophils count

(10×3/L)

RBC

(10×6/ uL)

HGB

(g/dL)

HCT

(%)

Normal blood

2.68 ± 0.02

j

0.13 ± 0.05

G

50.33 ± 0.57

A

5.14 ± 0.005

ab

8.33 ±0.05

d

22.73 ± 0.05

h

Salsola imbricata ( r)

LSD=2.09

6.6 ± 0.2

bcd

(-146.26)

3.6 ± 0.5

b

(-2669.23)

1.45 ± 0.02

fg

(-97.28)

4.32 ± 0.57

bc

(-15.95)

9.66 ± 0.97

abc

(+15.96)

21.63 ± 1.15

gh

(-4.71)

Salsola imbricata ( s)

LSD=2.97

6.8 ± 0.96

bc

(-153.73)

1.73 ± 0.60

cdef

(-1230.76)

2.53 ± 0.35

cdef

(-95)

4.58 ± 0.58h

bc

(-10.89)

10.1 ± 1

ab

(+21.24)

24.56 ± 0.87

ef

(+8.05)

Salsola imbricata ( f)

LSD=5.105

5.1 ± 0.4

cdefg

(-90.29)

1.46 ± 0.37

defg

(-1023.07)

1± 0.5

gh

(-98)

4.52 ± 0.42

bc

(-12.06)

10.2 ± 5.57

ab

(+22.44)

28.36 ± 1.12

c

(+24.76)

Leptadenia pyrotechnica (r) LSD=2.49

3.36 ± 0.50

hi

(-25.37)

0 ± 0

g

(-100)

3.5 ± 0.6

bc

(-93)

6.40 ± 1.27

bc

(+24.51)

11.36 ± 1.05

a

(+36.37)

35.62 ± 1.02

a

(+56.70)

Leptadenia pyrotechnica (s)LSD= 3.26

6.83 ± 0.35

bc

(-154.85)

0.4 ± 0.2

fg

(-207.69)

0 ± 0

h

(-100)

4.33 ± 0.61

bc

(-15.75)

8.5 ± 0.85

bcd

(+2.04)

30.46 ± 0.95

b

(+34.00)

Values sharing the different letters represent a significant difference in respective column; values in parenthesis represent percentage difference over the control group; LSD= least standard deviation; r=root; s=stem; f=flower

Table  1: (Cont…) In vitro effect of the Ethanolic extract of shrubs of drawer fort on human hematology [values represent mean±standard deviation; n=3]

Name of species

MCV

(FL)

MCH

(PG)

MCHC

(%)

RDW

(%)

Platelets

(10×3/uL)

MPV

(10×3/L)

RDW

Normal blood

44.13 ± 0.05

k

16.13 ± 0.05 h

36.63 ± 0.05 j

13.71 ± 0.02

l

642.33 ± 0.57

i

6.93 ±0.05

a

17.41 ± 0.02 d

Salsola imbricata  (r)

LSD= 2.09

52.5±1.25

i

(+18.96)

24 ± 0.85

a

(+48.79)

45.56±0.87

a

(+24.48)

22.56 ± 0.90 fghi

(+64.67)

833 ± 6135

f

(+29.75)

6.66 ± 0.77

ab

(-3.89)

20.4 ± 1.34 bc

(+17.17)

Salsola imbricata (s)

LSD= 2.97

53.56±1.25

hi

(+21.36)

21.66±1.205

cdef

(+34.28)

41.7 ± 0.95

b

(+13.93)

21.86 ± 1.55 fghij

(+59.56)

759 ± 6.65

g

(+18.22)

5.36 ± 1.28 bcdef

(-22.65)

21.4 ± 1.41 abc

(+22.91)

Salsola imbricata ( f)

LSD= 5.105

63.36 ± 0.73 bc

(+43.67)

22.6 ± 1.05 abcd

(+40.11)

35.26 ± 1.10 efgh

(-3.66)

26.6 ± 0.75 abc

(+94.16)

742 ± 7

g

(+15.57)

5.6 ± 0.85 bcdef

(-19.19)

21.96 ± 1.71 abc

(+26.13)

Leptadenia pyrotechnica (r) LSD= 2.49

52.4 ± 1.27

i

(+18.74)

16.7 ± 0.85

h

(+3.53)

33.43± 1.26

hi

(-8.66)

16.7 ± 0.76

k

(+21.80)

517 ± 4.50

k

(-19.51)

6.2 ± 0.2

abcd

(-10.53)

18.7 ± 0.7

cd

(+7.40)

Leptadenia pyrotechnica (s) LSD= 3.26

69.36±0.97

a

(+57.17)

20.6 ± 1.08

e

(+27.9571)

29.3 ± 0.95

j

(-20.01)

22.83 ± 1.05 fghi

(+66.64)

831.33 ± 8.02

f

(+29.49)

4.66 ± 0.70 abcd

(-32.75)

20.53 ±1.05 abc

(+17.92)

Values sharing the different letters represent a significant difference in a respective row; values in parenthesis represent percentage difference over the control group; LSD= least standard deviation; r=root; s=stem; f=flower

Table 2. In vitro effect of the Ethanolic extract of trees of drawer fort on human hematology [values represent mean±standard deviation; n=3]

Name of species

leukocyte count (10×3/u L)

Granulocyte

(%)

Lymphocyte

(%)

Monocyte

(%)

Eosinophils

(%)

Granulocyte           (10×3/L)

Normal blood

5.63 ± 0.05

k

0.13 ± 0.05

o

47.93 ± 0.05

i

1.96 ± 0.05

m

2.76 ± 0.05

a

0 ± 0

d

Prosopis cineraria (s)

11.2 ± 0.81

e

(+98.93)

28.6 ± 1.006

g

(+21900)

46.5 ± 1.15

defg

(-2.92)

22.5 ± 1.05

e

(+1047.95)

0.3 ± 0.1

b

(-89.28)

3.6 ± 1.0.5

c

(-360)

Tamarix. aphylla (b)

8.5 ± 0.6

hi

(+50.97)

38.93 ± 1.05

d

(+28864.15)

53.73±1.001

bcde

(+12.17)

5.7 ± 1.05

k

(+190)

0.03 ± 0.05

e

(-98.92)

3.6 ± 0.17

c

(-360)

Tamarix. Aphylla (s)

12.3 ± 0.72

d

(+118.47)

1.8 ± 0.55

n

(+1284.61)

43.4 ± 0.81

efgh

(-9.39)

52.66 ± 1.106

a

(+2586.75)

0.3 ± 0.1

e

(-89.28)

0.2 ± 0.1

d

(-20)

Capparis decidua(s)

10.23 ± 0.41

efg

(+81.70)

3.73 ± 0.20

m

(+2769.23)

54.93 ± 0.40

bcd

(+14.67)

21 ± 1

f

(+971.42)

0.03 ± 0.05

e

(-98.92)

3.46 ± 1.19

c

(-346)

Values sharing the different letters represent a significant difference in a respective row; values in parenthesis represent percentage difference over the control group; LSD= least standard deviation; r=root; s=stem; f=flower

 

Table 2: (Cont…) In vitro effect of the Ethanolic extract of trees of drawer fort on human hematology [values represent mean±standard deviation; n=3]

Name of species

Lymphocyte    count (10×3/L)

Monocyte count         (10×3/L)

Eosinophils count(10×3/L)

RBC

(10×6/ uL)

HGB          (g/dL)

HCT

(%)

Normal blood

2.68 ± 0.02

j

0.13 ± 0.05

g

50.33 ± 0.57

h

5.14 ± 0.005

c

8.33 ±0.05

d

22.73 ± 0.05

h

Prosopis cineraria(s)

5.6 ± 1.09

cde

(+108.95)

2.7 ± 0.85

bcd

(+1976.23)

2.56 ± 1.12

ij

(+100.874)

4.49 ± 0.81

bc

(-12.81)

10 ± 1

abc

(+20.48)

24.43 ± 1.13

ef

(+7.62)

Tamarix. aphylla (b)

4.6 ± 1.2

efgh

(+71.64)

0.5 ± 0.1

fg

(+284.61)

2.56 ± 1.12

jk

(+100.874)

4.49 ± 0.83

bc

(-12.81)

9.53 ± 1.006

abc

(+14.81)

27 ± 1

c

(+18.94)

Tamarix. Aphylla

(s)

5.5 ± 0.85

cdefg

(+105.22)

6.76 ± 0.96

a

(+5100)

0 ±0

ijk

(+105.96)

4.36 ± 1.13

bc

(-15.53)

8.46 ± 1.02

bcd

(+1.56)

27.8 ± 1.1

c

(+22.46)

Capparis decidua(s)

5.56 ± 0.75

cdefg

(+107.46)

2.36 ± 0.90

bcde

(+1715.38)

0 ± 0

jk

(+105.96)

4.17 ± 0.02

bc

(-18.87)

9.56 ± 1.001

abc

(+14.76)

24 ± 1

ef

(+5.58)

Values sharing the different letters represent a significant difference in a respective row; values in parenthesis represent percentage difference over the control group; LSD= least standard deviation; r=root; s=stem; f=flower

 

Table 2: (Cont…) In vitro effect of Ethanolic extract of trees of drawer fort on human hematology [values represent mean±standard daviation; n=3]

Name of species

MCV

(FL)

MCH

(PG)

MCHC

(%)

RDW

(%)

Platelets (10×3/uL)

MPV        (10×3/L)

RDW

Normal blood

44.13 ± 0.05

k

16.13 ± 0.05

H

36.63 ± 0.05

j

13.71 ± 0.02

l

642.33 ± 0.57

i

6.93 ±0.05

a

17.41 ± 0.02

d

Prosopis cineraria (s)

53.36 ± 0.91

hi

(+20.99)

22.7 ± 1.006

abcd

(+40.99)

41.5 ± 1.3

b

(+13.38)

23.4 ± 0.79

efgh

(+70.80)

580 ± 10.69

j

(-9.65)

4.8 ± 1.1

efg

(-30.43)

19.73±1.25

bcd

(+13.32)

Tamarix. aphylla (b)

60.56 ± 1.20

cde

(+37.32)

22.36±1.61

abcde

(+38.88)

34.63 ± 1.35

fghi

(-5.38)

25.63± 0.80

bcde

(+86.94)

1150 ± 5

c

(+79.12)

5.53±0.75

bcdef

(-20.20)

17.1 ± 5.61

d

(-1.78)

Tamarix. aphylla( s)

65.2 ± 1.014

b

(+47.84)

21.86 ± 0.86

bcde

(+35.52)

29.36 ± 1.20

j

(-19.78)

26.43± 0.85

abcd

(+92.77)

705 ± 10

h

(+9.81)

5.5±0.86

bcdef

(-20.63)

21.83 ± 1.10

abc

(+25.38)

Capparis decidua (s)

61.06 ± 0.77

cde

(+38.45)

19.96 ± 0.80

fg

(+23.97)

29.1 ± 0.75

j

(-20.49)

20.76 ± 1.101

hij

(+51.42)

690 ± 5

h

(+7.47)

4.76 ± 0.61

efg

(-31.01)

21.2 ± 1.75

abc

(+21.76)

Values sharing the different letters represent a significant difference in a respective row; values in parenthesis represent percentage difference over the control group; LSD= least standard deviation; r=root; s=stem; f=flower

 

 

References


 


International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research
© 2021 All rights reserved