Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency has been known as a major problem in the world, and it possibly plays a role in pathogenesis and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. One of the indices of evaluation of insulin resistance is the ration of Leptin to Adiponectin. Leptin and Adiponectin are two of the important adipo-cytokines secreted from adipose tissue, which play a major endocrine role in the body. The aim of this study was finding the relationship between Leptin and Adiponectin ratio with serum level of vitamin D in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes (20 men and 20 women) and vitamin D deficiency were selected randomly. Demographic and clinical characteristics including age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C, fat profile and serum Leptin levels and Adiponectin, and vitamin D were measured. Then, the relationship between vitamin D level and Leptin, Adiponectin and the ratio of Leptin to Adiponectin was evaluated. Results: This study showed that there was no statistically significant relationship between serum vitamin D level and Leptin and Adiponectin levels. Also, there was no significant relationship between HbA1c and vitamin D levels, Adiponectin and insulin resistance (Leptin / Adiponectin ratio) with cholesterol levels, but there was a significant relationship between Leptin levels with BMI. With increasing levels of Leptin, BMI also increased. There was also a significant relationship between vitamin D levels and fasting blood glucose levels. Finally, the results of this study showed a significant relationship between insulin resistance and body mass index, with insulin resistance increasing with BMI. Conclusion: In the present study, no significant relationship between serum level of vitamin D with Leptin and Adiponectin levels and ratio of Leptin to Adiponectin (insulin resistance) was observed. Also, there was no connection between patients' clinical parameters with vitamin D level, insulin resistance, Leptin and Adiponectin levels, but there was a relationship between vitamin D level with fasting blood sugar, insulin resistance with BMI and Leptin with BMI.