Introduction: Leukemia is a cancer with onset from the bone marrow which rapidly metastasizes to the bloodstream resulting in death if left untreated for a few months. The present study intended to investigate the effect of industrial drug abuse on acute Myeloblastic leukemia (AML) amongst patients referring to the hospitals of Islamic Azad University within 2014-2015. Materials and Methodology: The present observational case-control study targeted 120 AML patients who were randomly selected from the hospitals affiliated with Islamic Azad University based on simple convenience (census) sampling method. Due to the finite number of statistical population, all the available patients were selected as the samples of the present study. Accordingly, the case group included 60 AML patients with a history of drug abuse and the control group included 60 AML patients without a history of drug abuse. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 13 software with significance level of P= 0.05. Results: It has been found that %20 of the case group alongside %5 of the control group had a history of drug abuse, which was representative of a statistically significant difference among two groups (P=0.013). Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, it could be concluded that industrial drug abuse had a significant impact on the course of acute Myeloblastic leukemia.