International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research
ISSN (Print): 2250-1029
ISSN (Online): 2249-6084
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2020   Volume 10   Issue 3

COVID-19 Outbreak in Terms of Viral Transmission and Disease Biocontrol by Healthy Microbiome‎
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Mona O. Albureikan
Citation
Albureikan M O. COVID-19 Outbreak in Terms of Viral Transmission and Disease Biocontrol by Healthy Microbiome‎. Int j pharm phytopharm res 2020;10(3):139-46
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Abstract

Before the end of December 2019, thousands of pneumonia cases were recorded. The causative agents of these strange symptoms were unknown. These cased started in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. At the beginning of January 2020, a new virus was detected in throat swab samples of patients who suffering from fatigue, heat more than 38◦C, dry cough, dyspnea, and lung pain. The presence of sputum, headache, hemoptysis, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting were not common symptoms. The isolated novel virus resembled that of the coronavirus and was named coronavirus 2019 or COVID-19. In February 2020, the cases of human COVID-19 infections were increased and spread all over the world.  The number of reported deaths and positive cases increased daily in China, the USA, the Middle East, Europe, and South Asia. COVID-19 like the six previously studied and isolated coronaviruses that cause severe human pneumonia with a high mortality rate. The zoonotic corona virus-like COVID-19, acute respiratory syndrome (SARS- CoV), and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) are infectious and develop strong respiratory damage and pneumonia. The viral genome of COVID-19 was extracted and sequenced. It contained about 29, 903 nucleotide bases and the phylogenetic study revealed that it is similar by 89.1 % to SARS-like coronaviruses. These nucleotide similarities clarify the high activities of COVID-19 in human infection. All retrospective studies showed that COVID-19 is dangerous and can spread quickly between human beings. Thus prevention of infection may be important. This review deals with the prevention of COVID-19 infection using different methods. The Gut microbiome is a common group of probiotics with promising benefits health effects in humans.  They antagonistic some bacterial pathogens and enhance the immunity of the host. They may process valuable antiviral effects and decrease respiratory tract infections, viral counts, and help critically ill patients.  The actions of probiotics as antiviral may be indirect through stimulation of the immune system.  Activities of probiotics against viruses were not studied sufficiently and lack in information or data is noticed. Some of these probiotics are found in the gut and intestinal tract.  Native gut microflora improved and enhanced the host immune system to react more rapidly to detect different pathogens.  Studies on the effect of probiotics type, dose on viral population infections at different ages, and viral development are urgently needed. Also, the antiviral effects of the probiotics and their mechanisms of actions are necessary to be studied and explained. In conclusion, probiotics may protect against viral infection and may aid in avoiding COVID-19 infection and developments through helping our immune system to strongly fight viruses. 


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