International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research
ISSN (Print): 2250-1029
ISSN (Online): 2249-6084
Publish with eIJPPR Submission
2021   Volume 11   Issue 5

Some Nutritional and Medicinal Importance of Nigerian Walnut “Tetracarpidium conophoram”

Uchejeso Obeta1*, Alexander Lawrence2, Muhammad Akram3, Fahad Said Khan3,4

 

1Department of Medical Laboratory Management, Federal School of Medical Laboratory Science, Jos-Nigeria. 2Department of Haematology. Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja-Nigeria.

3Department of Eastern Medicine, Government College University Faisalabad-Pakistan.

4Department of Research and Development, Qarshi Foundation Lahore, Pakistan.


ABSTRACT

Nigerian walnuts (Tetracarpidium conophoram) are used as a diet and medicine is on the increase to the extent that it is almost scarce in various regions where they are marketed. This study took a brief review on the nature, classification, properties, phytochemical components, nutritional values, and medicinal properties. There is rapid growth towards research and developments involving Nigerian walnut for drug development. From this study, it is discovered that Nigerian walnut has shown anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-chelating nature, and high blood pressure control activities. Also, it has shown anti-lipidemic, anti-diabetes, anti-malarial, antimicrobial /antibacterial, and anticancer nature. The walnut has given reproductive assistance and aided sperm production and sperm quality, wound healing, anti-ulcer, and stomach disorders treatment features. The Nigerian walnut has energizing and weight management and diseases prevention capacity. It aids in bone health, skin or other tissues repairs, and could go a long way to assist in other health challenges. There has also encouraged usage in the aspect of complementary and alternative medicine. There seems to be a close relationship between walnut and bitter kola in nature, diet and medicinal properties Researchers and drugs producing companies should improve in their studies for more drug discoveries that could involve Nigerian walnut as it could assist in a Nobel discovery for treatment of difficult to treat diseases in the world.

Key Words: Walnut, Ukpa, Nutrition, Medicine, Diseases, Bitter kola


INTRODUCTION

Nutritional and Medicinal plants and vegetables have been advocated for the management of difficult to treat diseases [1, 2]. Herbal and complementary medicine has been advocated [3] and approved by WHO [4] in the cases of need. Nigerian walnut is discussed here for their nutritional and medicinal importance in Nigeria and across the world. This article shall stimulate more studies on walnut especially in the areas where research on them have not been studied.

The Nigerian Walnut with the Botanical Name (Tetracarpidium conophoram) contains an important oilseed crop that is grown in the tropical Sederhana regions of the world. You are a climbing shrub Dalam Spora plukenetia. The Bukan or Adala, as it was named so because the Walnut even has superficial similarity with the Walnut. Adalah A nature in Central West Tropical Africa from Togo to Congo to Sierra Leone. Adalah is abundantly available in Nigeria, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo. It prefers the Hedges of the Dalam rainforest semi-shady places; secondary forest a low shrub; Iklan farms a kulat altitude 250-1400 (820-4590 strengthen appropriate). Although it is well registered in Sierra Leone, clearly Bukan originally did not come from Sierra Leone, as Bukan is registered in Liberia and Ghana, but the reproach Presence of Dalam Sierra Leone as a cause of the Return of Slaves as the reason why Bukan is known to come to Krio from Yoruba (Nigerian). Plukenetia conophora is the only plukenetia species native to Central West Africa. Others had to strengthen Platine originating from another part of Africa, of the Indian subcontinent, of South East Asia of America [5].

The scientific name of walnut is Tetracarpidium conophoum and classifies according to Arranz et al., [6] as follows:

Kingdom                                               Plantae

Order                                                      Malpighiales

Family                                                   Euphorbiaceae

Sub Family                                           Acalyphoideae

Genus                                                     Plukenetia

Species                                                 Tetracarpidium                    

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study sort for information required to investigate the topic based on the nutritional and medicinal importance of Nigerian walnut. The required materials were obtained from scholarly sources such as peer-reviewed journals and books. The used articles mostly published by Nigerians were containing extensively the required information readers can easily understand.

Not only that, the used articles and books were also based on research experience conducted in and outside Nigeria using the Nigerian walnut. The content of used journals and books were generated through searching the keywords of the study in Google which includes Walnut, Nigerian walnut, Nutritional values of walnut, Medicinal uses of walnut, Phytochemicals of Nigerian walnut, and Studies on Nigerian walnut.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The search and literature reviews revealed much useful information about the Nutritional and medicinal uses of Nigerian walnut ranging from the local names of walnut in Nigeria, phytochemical components, physical and chemical properties of walnut, and their pictorial nature as shown in Figures 1-3.

 

Names of walnut in Nigeria

The scientific name is Tetracarpidium conophoum. The common name is walnut otherwise called Nigerian walnut or African walnut. This is because it came from Juglan nigra (the family Juglandaceae because of African origin. Though the walnut is called Nigerian walnut, different nationalities in Nigeria have specific names given to the plant/seeds based on their locality or nationality. Such Nigerian names for walnut are as follows: Ukpa in Igbo nation, Ukwa in Igala and Idoma, Ekporo as called by Efik and Ibibios, Okhue or Okwe as it is called by Edo people, Gawadi bairi in Hausa, and Awusa or Asala in Yoruba nationality [5, 7, 8].

Description of the walnut

Tetracarpadium conophorum has a long history of cultivation of food as a plant species in West Africa. Guinea and West and Central Africa distribute and consume it. Capsule bear larvae are green when growing and greenish-yellow when growing. The leaves are about 53 inches wide and about 3 inches long by rotating. Only the wings are shown solely to give a sense of proportion. The taste of hard fruit and eucalyptus. The seeds take 4 to 6 months to mature and are found in the local market between June and September. It covers every pillar and especially the trees that surround it. It is a botanical made from cocoa beans and cola and used. Because it is based on the high consumption of endosperm oil used by several people in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and the province of Borge in Congo. It grows well along the coast of Africa and is believed to come from the southwest. It is common for farmers to grow food in tropical Africa on farms and gardens, only for families and for the local market. Tetra carpidium conophorum is a climber that grows to about 6-18m in height when it is born on the stem. When a successful tree gets taller, the tallest tree grows from the ground onto other trees. They are well received in warm conditions. It has a stem that can reach 70 meters or more. It climbs taller trees elsewhere to achieve greater sunlight and maturity. In some cases, the wood can be broken and one stays in place until it is sold. You must be around 16cm round and dark gray, but your current green hair is still small. The roots are very beautiful. Leaves are (10 cm x 5 cm) short, oval, with serrated sides. They turned and pointed carefully to the head. The leaves have three nerve endings with leaf petioles up to 5 cm long [9].

Ndukwu and Ejirika [10] describe the physical characteristics of Nigerian beans including: water content - 28.2% by weight, mass (m) at 5.5.6m 6.5g, shell thickness - 0.135 ± 0, 04 cm, core mass - 4.22 ± 0.26 g, core water - 28.9% Wb, porosity - 45%, grain density - 0.815 g / cm3, grain density - 0.45 g / cm3, the percentage of corn - 76% in the grain area -15.41 cm 2. Characteristics can influence behavior. Physical increase in water content, arable area, and variation in grain size. The fruits on the tree are shown in Figure 1; Ripe fruit content is shown in Figure 2 while dried fruit is shown in Figure 3.