Hepcidin plays a key role in iron metabolism control, and its activation is caused by iron or inflammatory motivations. In this review, we discussed many clinical conditions such as anemia of inflammation (AI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), Diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, and malaria. In inflammation anemia, the production of hepcidin is boosted to 100 times and that may take account of the description characteristic of this condition, the sequestering of iron in macrophages. Hepcidin may develop as an influential marker of functional iron deficiency in patients with chronic kidney ailment. Diabetes is an iron-related inflammatory condition and elevated oxidative injury. Recent research recommended that iron is a key pathogenic factor in diabetes of both type 1 and type 2 and may, therefore, be an enticing potential treatment. Normal growth and development of the fetus depend on the sufficiency of maternal iron during pregnancy, reduction of hepcidin during a healthy pregnancy enabling iron transfer to the fetus. In clinical trials, iron supplementation is associated with a higher incidence and seriousness of malaria in some studies, but not in all, while dietary iron deficiency is correlated with a reduced malaria parasitemia and Mortality.